AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere
This paper describes AnthWest, a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. In this dataset a total of 22,648 adult occurrence records comprising 9657 unique events are documented for 92 species of Anthidium, including the invasive range of two introduced species from Eurasia, A. oblongatum (Illiger) and A. manicatum (Linnaeus). The geospatial coverage of the dataset extends from northern Canada and Alaska to southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. The majority of records in the dataset correspond to information recorded from individual specimens examined by the authors during this project and deposited in 61 biodiversity collections located in Africa, Europe, North and South America. A fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature, largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species. The temporal scale of the dataset represents collection events recorded between 1886 and 2012. The dataset was developed employing SQL server 2008 r2. For each specimen, the following information is generally provided: scientific name including identification qualifier when species status is uncertain (e.g. “Questionable Determination” for 0.4% of the specimens), sex, temporal and geospatial details, coordinates, data collector, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, historic identification, historic identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. For a small portion of the database records, bees associated with threatened or endangered plants (~ 0.08% of total records) as well as specimens collected as part of unpublished biological inventories (~17%), georeferencing is presented only to nearest degree and the information on floral host, locality, elevation, month, and day has been withheld. This database is being constantly updated and can potentially be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies, as well as in assessments of pollinator status and pollination services. For native pollinators, this large dataset of occurrence records is the first to be simultaneously developed during a species-level systematic study.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 22,648 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Griswold T, Gonzalez VH and H Ikerd (2014). AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini), 22,648 data records. Contributed by Griswold T, Gonzalez VH, Ikerd H, Arduser M, Ascher J, Ayala R, Barnes J, Barr C, Bowers D, Brady S, Brown B, Buck M, Clark S, Clark WH, Danforth B, Engel MS, Falin Z, Fullerton S, Harris B, Hoebeke R, Horsley P, Huntzinger K, Kimsey L, Koch F, Lee V, Luís-Martínez MA, Marshall C, Melo G, Michener CD, Neff J, Notton D, Olson C, Otte D, Packer L, Pagliano G, Paulsen MJ, Pulawski W, Ratcliffe B, Riley E, Ritcher V, Roig Alsina A, Rozen J, Serna F, Scott V, Smith-Pardo A, Spendlove EJ, Stange L, Thomas J, Thorp R, Tinerella P, Urban D, Vergara E, Wall M, Weintraub J, Wiley J, Yanega D, Yañez O, Zimmermann D, and Zuparko RL.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is ZooKeys. This the U. S. National Pollinating Insects Database [United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan, Utah] is made available under the Open Database License: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/. Any rights in individual contents of the database are licensed under the Database Contents License: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/dbcl/1.0/.
Anthophila; Apoidea; bees; invasive species; North America; South America; pollinators; biodiversity; floral hosts.; Anthidiini; Apoidea; bee; wool-carder bees; Anthidium
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The database covers a wide range of ecosystems found in both North and South America, from -62° to 79° in latitude and -174° to -22° in longitude. A large portion of the records in North America are from xeric regions (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts) and Mediterranean California, while those from South America are mostly from the xeric regions on the flanks of the Andes (Figs. 1, 2). No records for Anthidium are known from the Caribbean islands. Much of the data set comes from general bee collecting. Additional material in western United States comes from multi-year intensive, systematic bee faunal studies in protected landscapes. While the majority of species of Anthidium occupy a small number of ecoregions (< 5), some species such as A. tenuiflorae Cockerell are widespread, occurring in as many as 41 ecoregions. Many Anthidium have distributions that include critical, endangered, or vulnerable, as well as relatively stable or intact, ecoregions (Table 1) based on WWF (World Wild Fund for Nature) designations (Olson and Dinerstein 2002). Known distributions for 16 species are largely or entirely within critical or endangered ecoregions with at least 90% of collection records from such designated areas. An additional 22 species had at least 90% of collection records from within vulnerable ecoregions. Few native Anthidium spanned both Nearctic and Neotropic Realms (8.8%).
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-62, -174], North East [79, -22]|
The coverage of this dataset includes all 92 species of the bee genus Anthidium known to occur in the Western Hemisphere, including two that are introduced. Anthidium belongs to the tribe Anthidiini and is among the most diverse genera of the family Megachilidae. Based on the materials used in nest construction, anthidiines are broadly classed into two groups, carder bees and resin bees. While resin bees are generically diverse in the Western Hemisphere, Anthidium is the sole representative of carder bees in the Americas. As such this dataset documents all of a functional bee group for the Americas. The greatest number of data records are for two widespread western North American species, A. utahense Swenk (2409 records) and A. mormonum Cresson (1615 records) (Fig. 4). The species with the least number of records are A. alsinai Urban A. isabelae Urban, A. larocai Urban, A. luizae Urban, A. multispinosum Gonzalez & Griswold, A. neffi Gonzalez & Griswold, and A. rozeni Urban, each represented by a single data record. Though these species are rare in collections, there is no knowledge whether they are rare in nature, though at least for A. multispinosum, it is likely that it has a restricted distribution. No Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere have formally been listed as threatened or endangered. Anthidium are occasionally associated with rare, threaten or endangered plants. Only a handful of such associations with state and/or federally listed plant bee records are included in the dataset (Table 2). Published records provide georeference only to the nearest degree, and floral host, month and day fields will have information hidden. The table below lists Anthidium species associated with State and/or Federally listed plants in the USDA, NRCS PLANTS database. All specimens in this dataset have been reviewed by the authors or are easily determined taxa that have been reviewed by experts in bee taxonomy (e.g., John Ascher, for some AMNH material; A. A. Grigarick and L. A. Stange for California records in Grigarick and Stange 1968). Records with questionable determinations, label information or data have been withheld.
|Genus||Anthidium (wool-carder bees)|
|Start Date / End Date||1886-05-01 / 2012-02-01|
No Description available
|Funding||National Science Foundation grants DEB-0742998 and DBI-0956388|
|Study Area Description||General spatial coverage: This dataset includes species occurrences of bees in the genus Anthidium across the entire Western Hemisphere, from Alaska to southern Chile and southern Argentina, and from below sea level in Death Valley, California, USA, to 4700 m a.s.l. in Tucumán, Argentina. Within North America coverage is most complete for temperate regions, though diminishing diversity correlated with declining latitude cannot be ignored. Coordinates: -62° to 79° latitude and -174° to -22° longitude Temporal coverage Records in AnthWest span more than a century, from May 1886 to February 2012. The majority of the records are from the past four decades (Fig. 2). In temperate North America, here restricted to Canada and the United States, Anthidium is most active during the late spring and summer months; the majority of the records are for May through August. In alpine regions (> 3000m) the season is narrowed to May through September, but largely June through August, peaking in July.|
|Design Description||The purpose of this dataset is to make available data associated with bees of the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere. The dataset was developed during the course of a species-level revision of the genus (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013). Most records come from specimens deposited in the first author’s host institution or acquired on loan from multiple bee depositories, primarily in North America, but some from South American and European institutions (Fig. 3). Permitting issues limited access to some South American institutions. All such specimens were identified by V.H. Gonzalez and/or T. Griswold. Additional California records from Grigarick and Stange (1968) were captured for all species whose taxonomic concept was not modified in Gonzalez and Griswold (2013). Subsequent to identification, individual specimens were processed by a team of assistants at the USDA-ARS Bee Biology & Systematics Laboratory (BBSL). Individual specimens were entered into the US National Pollinating Insects Database (USNPID) using data entry forms where each specimen received a unique identifier (see below). These forms used authority files for bees, locations, collectors and plants. Where locations were not already georeferenced in the database they were georeferenced using Google EarthTM (http://earth.google.com/) or GEOlocate (http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/). Georeferencing used the form of decimal latitude and longitude in the WGS84 datum. Where georeferencing in the form of UTMs; township, range and section; or degree-minute-seconds was present on the specimen label, these were transformed, but the original label georeferencing was captured in the location authority files. Records were analyzed geospatially using ArcGIS and WWF Biotic Regions. Twenty-two records (<0.1%) were excluded from biotic regions analysis due to questionable identification and/or label data. Databasing processes for the USNPID have evolved over the 25 years since initiation. Processing, originally considered as too costly, has since been incorporated into the databasing process. Verbatim label data capture originally only for holotypes, was expanded first to loaned specimens and now to all retro-active data capture. When validity of entry fields is questioned, verbatim information is queried before pulling the specimen from the collection, saving both time and potential handling hazards. Addition of that tracking data (e.g. date of record entry, date of record modification, logging of entry person) and use of authority tables were essential to data quality, yet amounted to negligible additional data capture costs.|
The personnel involved in the project:
Specimen records captured in AnthWest are the result of: 1) non-systematic collections usually as part of general entomological collecting events or ones focused on bees in general; 2) standardized biodiversity surveys conducted by the USDA Pollinating Insects Research Unit using a combination of net and pan traps; 3) trap nest studies; and 4) specimens resulting from studies on pollination and reproductive biology of threatened or endangered plants.
|Study Extent||Because this dataset was developed as part of research that was focused on taxonomic revisionary work, sampling was not the focus of efforts; rather the data represents the aggregate of what we know about the distribution and behavior of Anthidium from existing material. Carder bees are diurnal, and are only active when temperatures are well above freezing and only during the growing season when floral resources are potentially available.|
|Quality Control||All individual specimens included in this dataset were examined during the course of the taxonomic revision using distribution maps and raw data following standardized protocols (Figs. 7, 8). Records with questionable data on original insect labels were included in the dataset but distinguishable by notes in the DWC field “Identification Qualifier”. These records were excluded from published distribution maps in the species-level revision of the genus (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013). A small fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were taken from the literature (see above), largely California records from a taxonomic treatment with some additional records for the two introduced species (Anthidium manicatum and A. oblongatum). These records are highlighted in the Darwin Core [DWC] fields “Associated References” and “Occurrence Remarks” as well as a denoted with a “PUB” prefix in the catalog number.|
Method step description:
- Two separate work flows were employed for data capture, which differed fundamentally on where in the process material was determined by the revisionary authors. Retroactive data capture (Fig. 7) incorporated loaned specimens, publication records, and previously non-databased specimens in the U. S. National Pollinating Insects Collection, all of which follows after the identification process. Publication records were treated similarly to retroactive data capture except each record represents a summation of males and females with identical collecting event data. Beginning in 2005, new specimen records (Fig. 8) were batch entered into the database for projects and opportunistic collection events alike. Specimen identification and subsequent update to the database occurred after record and event metadata had been entered. New specimen collections also had a work flow that resulted in a greater number of data quality checks by technicians and primary researchers.
- Dataset description: AnthWest is a result of a broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of bees in the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere. The dataset includes 22,648 occurrence records for 92 species of Anthidium, including two introduced species from Eurasia. Each record consists of the species name, locality, collector’s name, collection date, latitude, longitude, host plants, associated organisms, name of identifier, taxonomic value (i.e., type specimen, voucher, etc.), and repository. When coordinates for collection sites were not provided on the label, they were extracted using Google EarthTM (http://earth.google.com/) or GEOlocate (http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/). To guarantee the high quality of the data, most records in the dataset correspond to individual specimens examined by the authors during this project, representing 61 biodiversity collections in Europe, Africa, North and South America (Fig. 3). A small fraction (4.8%) of the occurrence records were extracted from the literature. Only literature records for which there was a high degree of certainty in the identification were included. The vast majority of these published records were taken from the rigorous study of California Anthidiini by Grigarick and Stange (1968). Their records were included for all Anthidium species except A. atripes and A. emarginatum, which in Gonzalez and Griswold (2013) are recognized as species complexes. The balance, 30 records of the introduced A. manicatum and A. oblongatum (Miller et al. 2002, Maier 2009, Tonietto and Ascher 2008), were included because these are distinctive species that could not be confused with any native species nor with each other. As with most other bees, floral resources are essential for reproductive success of Anthidium. Floral records indicate a broad array of floral visitation based on the quarter (24%) of AnthWest records that include floral visits. While visitation includes 56 plant families and over 100 species, Fabaceae and Boraginaceae dominated the dataset, together accounting for 75% of the records (Fig. 5). Analysis of plant records at the generic level similarly shows the dominance of Fabaceae and Boraginaceae; all top ten floral associations belong to these two families, but Phacelia, the most visited genus belongs not to Fabaceae but to Boraginaceae (Fig. 6). Records for 34 name-bearing types of Anthidium are also included in the database.
|Collection Name||USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory|
|Parent Collection Identifier||BBSL|
|Specimen preservation methods||Pinned|
- Gonzalez VH, Griswold T (2013) Wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): diversity, host plant associations, phylogeny, and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 168: 221–425. doi:10.1111/zoj.12017
- Grigarick AA, Stange LA (1968) The pollen-collecting bees of the Anthidiini of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 9: 1–113.
- Huber JT (1998) The importance of voucher specimens, with practical guidelines for preserving specimens of the major invertebrate phyla for identification. Journal of Natural History 32 (3): 367–385. DOI: 10.1080/00222939800770191
- Miller SR, Gaebel R, Mitchell RJ, Arduser M (2002) Occurrence of two species of Old World bees, Anthidium manicatum and A. oblongatum (Apoidea: Megachilidae), in northern Ohio and southern Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 35(1): 65–69.
- Maier CT (2009) New distributional records of three alien species of Megachilidae (Hymenoptera) from Connecticut and nearby states. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111: 775–784.
- Olson DM, Dinerstein E (2002) The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(2): 199–224.
- Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED, Burgess ND, Powell GVN, Underwood EC, D'Amico JA, Itoua I, Strand HE, Morrison JC, Loucks CJ, Allnutt TF, Ricketts TH, Kura Y, Lamoreux JF, Wettengel WW, Hedao P, Kassem KR (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11): 933–938.
- Tonietto RK, Ascher JS (2008) Occurrence of the old world bee species Hylaeus hyalinatus, Anthidium manicatum, A. oblongatum, and Megachile sculpturalis, and the native species Coelioxys banksi, Lasioglossum michiganense, and L. zophops in Illinois (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 41 (3–4): 200–203.
- USDA, NRCS (2014). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 24 March 2014). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
|Purpose||The purpose of this dataset is to make available data associated with bees of the genus Anthidium in the Western Hemisphere. The dataset was developed during the course of a species-level revision of the genus (Gonzalez and Griswold 2013). This dataset can potentially be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies, as well as in assessments of pollinator status and pollination services.|