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Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Leopardi-Verde C L (2015): A data set of occurrences of the Encyclia diota species complex. v1.2. PhytoKeys. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.pensoft.net/resource?r=encyclia_diota_complex&v=1.2
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Occurrence; Encyclia; Orchidaceae; Central America; Mexico; Specimen; Encyclia inopinata; Encyclia diota; Encyclia insidiosa; Encyclia
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This data includes only collections of Encyclia species of Central America and Mexico.
|Bounding Coordinates||4.71, 35.34 / -117.23, -74.37 (min, max Latitude / min, max Longitude)|
All proposed members of the Encyclia diota complex
|Species||Encyclia diota, Encyclia insidiosa, Encyclia inopinata|
A preliminary phylogeny of Encyclia Hook., obtained using molecular and morphological characters of 50 species, revealed several clades (i.e., monophyletic groups, which include all the species sharing a common ancestor). We have denominated one of these clusters the "Pacific Clade" (PC). This clade consists of 18–25 species restricted to the Pacific coast of Megamexico (an area including tropical Mexico and Mesoamérica south to Nicaragua) and includes ornamental species such as Encyclia incumbens and E. hanburii, among others. It is distinguished by the combination of features: wingless columns, smooth ovary, broad leaves (usually greater than 2 cm wide), broad lateral-lobes of the labellum, and a preference for moist habitats. We propose to analyze the nucleotide-sequence variation of selected DNA regions, both from the chloroplast (fundamentally ycf1, rpl32-trnl) and the nucleus (primarily ITS), as well as to explore morpho-anatomy and vegetative ultrastruture, in order to obtain informative characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group. We also propose to produce a taxonomic treatment of the PC, which is composed of several morphologically well-defined groups with some ill-defined species. The taxonomic treatment will include keys, descriptions, and iconography of the constituting species that will be useful to horticulturalists, scientists, and in conservation. To determine how many species compose the PC, aside from the classical morphological approach, several clones (genotipes) per species, representing different populations, will be phylogenetically analyzed. We are interested in finding whether characters traditionally used in species-delimitations within Encyclia, such as the morphology of the lateral-lobes of the labellum and the callus structure, are phylogenetically informative.
|Title||Sistemática y evolución del género Encyclia con énfasis en Megaméxico III.|
|Funding||1.- Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) 2.- American Orchid Society|
|Study Area Description||The scope of this study is centered in Mexico and Central America|
|Design Description||To properly study the systematics and evolution of Encyclia, we should attempt to use all types of data (morphology, anatomy, cytology, nucleotide sequences, geographical distributions, natural history data, etc.) and the theoretical resources of comparative biology, particularly the use of phylogenetic systematics. Encyclia sensu stricto is a group with a controversial taxonomic history, a fact that reflects in the resulting unstable nomenclature (Higgins et al. 2003). Several important studies (Dressler 1961, Dressler & Pollard 1971, Higgins et al. 2003, Withner 1996, 1998, 2000) have addressed the taxonomy of the genus, with varying degrees of success. However, even though Encyclia is an orchid assemblage of considerable horticultural importance, we know little about its biogeography, evolution, and internal relationships. Ultimately, the result of this information vacuum is the lack of a workable, phylogenetically sound infrageneric classification system. Why study the systematics and evolution of Encyclia? Aside from theoretical considerations, knowing the species limits, their distributions and natural history, and their relationships allows us to formulate sound conservation policies; this is particularly important as we realize that most of the species seem to have limited distributions, usually within the boundaries of a single biogeographical province. Furthermore, due to the horticultural potential of most Encyclia species and their preference for pristine ecosystems, the members of the genus could serve as “umbrella species” that allow us to identify areas to be prioritized for preservation in the Neotropics, particularly in Mexico and Central America. Well and beyond phylogenetic interest, we would like to decipher gross biogeographic patterns in the distribution of Encyclia. These patterns can be detected using the phylogenetic backbone that, combined with currently proposed biogeographic provinces and others approaches such as molecular clocks, can reveal information about the origin and evolution of the genus (e.g., where and approximately when did the genus originate? which are the most basal or the most derived species?). We also would like to know how some taxonomic important characters like presence of column wings, the absence or presence of verrucae in the pedicellate ovary, have evolved (e.g., was the ovary of the ancestor of Encyclia smooth or verruculose). Partial results from our research, with the use of chloroplast (rpl32-trnL) and nuclear (ITS region) DNA suggest that the evolution of Encyclia has followed biogeographical pathways similar to those of other angiosperms (i.e., Bromeliaceae sensu Givnish et al. 2007). Understanding of these patterns allows to identify the processes that have modeled them. Working the methology that leads to a robust phylogeny for a single clade will be a major landmark: it can simply be repeated for other clades as long as relevant material for examination and for the extraction of DNA is available. For the PC specifically, it will help us understand the evolution of particular characters that we have used in the past identify and classify species of Encyclia. Finally, combining both sets of data (generated in Brazil and in Mexico) no doubt will help us arrive at an even more robust phylogeny of Encyclia, one that can serve as a platform for a new infrageneric classification system (i.e., one where we divide the genus at least in recognizable sections or subgenera if necessary). This classification will be accompanied by keys, species descriptions, and figures (drawing and photographs) that will help the user recognize major groups and the species in the PC in a greenhouse, the field, and/or in the herbarium. We are sure that these tools will be useful to a wide audience, including orchid growers, horticulturalists, and scientists at large, as well as being critical in orchid conservation (you cannot aspire to conserve what you do not really know). Furthermore, this knowledge will certainly prove useful in the development of breeding programs involving Encyclia within the Cattleya-alliance These resources should help us integrate and propose a coherent scheme of the evolution and relationships of the genus. It is therefore important to determine both the evolutionary origin of key characters defining the groups within the genus and the biogeography of Encyclia in order to understand how the species of this genus reached their current distribution.|
The personnel involved in the project:
We study specimens housed at the herbaria AMES, AMO, CICY, F, MEXU, MO and TEFH.
|Study Extent||This study includes the complete distribution area of the Encyclia diota species complex.|
|Step Description 1||We study the herbarium material in physic, we measure its parts and take pictures.|
|Collection Name||Herbario del Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán|
|Parent Collection Identifier||Not applicable|
|Specimen preservation methods||Dried and pressed|
- Dressler RL, Pollard GE (1974) The Genus Encyclia in Mexico. Asociación Mexicana de Orquideología, A.C., Mexico, 1–151 pp.
- Leopardi-Verde C (2014) Sistemática y evolución del género Encyclia con énfasis en Megaméxico III. Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., México.
- Leopardi-Verde, C.; Carnevali, G.; Romero-González, A. 2015. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico. PhytoKeys: In press.