A dataset of bird inventory records at Cloudbridge Nature Reserve, Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica, between March 2016 and May 2020.
A compilation of bird inventory occurrence data collected at Cloudbridge Nature Reserve on the Pacific slope of the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica. The reserve is largely former pasture and farm land composed of tropical montane cloud forest of several ages of secondary forest with some primary forest patches. Data only includes records of species that were confirmed with photographic proof of presence in the reserve. Includes data from several different types of surveys or records including: point count, walking, call-playback (nocturnal owl surveys), camera trap, and incidental photographs.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 40,263 records.
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Occurrence; Observation; avian point count walking survey camera trap call-playback cloud forest
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Data was collected from Cloudbridge Nature Reserve and adjacent habitats. Cloudbridge is located on the Pacific slope of Cerro Chirripó near the entrance to Cerro Chirripó National Park. The Río Chirripó Pacífico runs east-west through the reserve and joins with the the Río Uran, which runs north-south, in the center of the reserve. Cloudbridge is bounded on the north and south by private forested land, on the east by Cerro Chirripó National Park and a disused cattle pasture, and on the west by active cattle pasture. Altitudes of data collection ranged between 1550 m and 2200 m a.s.l.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [9.464, -83.579], North East [9.483, -83.565]|
All birds were identified to species based on the most current taxonomic designations at the time of publication. Only species for which a voucher photo was collected from within the reserve are included in the dataset.
|Species||Accipiter bicolor (Bicolored Hawk), Amaurospiza concolor (Blue Seedeater), Amazilia edward (Snowy-bellied Hummingbird), Amazilia tzacatl (Rufous-tailed Hummingbird), Anabacerthia variegaticeps (Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner), Antrostomus saturatus (Dusky Nightjar), Aramides cajaneus (Gray-cowled Wood-Rail), Arremon brunneinucha (Chestnut-capped Brushfinch), Arremon crassirostris (Sooty-faced Finch), Atlapetes albinucha (White-naped Brushfinch), Atlapetes tibialis (Yellow-thighed Brushfinch), Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Northern Emerald-Toucanet), Basileuterus culicivorus (Golden-crowned Warbler), Basileuterus melanogenys (Black-cheeked Warbler), Basileuterus melanotis (Costa Rican Warbler), Bolborhynchus lineola (Barred Parakeet), Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret), Buteo brachyurus (Short-tailed Hawk), Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk), Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk), Buteogallus urubitinga (Great Black Hawk), Campylopterus hemileucurus (Violet Sabrewing), Campylorhamphus pusillus (Brown-billed Scythebill), Cantorchilus elutus (Isthmian Wren), Caracara cheriway (Crested Caracara), Cardellina canadensis (Canada Warbler), Cardellina pusilla (Wilson's Warbler), Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture), Catharus aurantiirostris (Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush), Catharus frantzii (Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush), Catharus fuscater (Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush), Catharus gracilirostris (Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush), Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush), Chaetura vauxi (Vaux's Swift), Chamaepetes unicolor (Black Guan), Chlorophonia callophrys (Golden-browed Chlorophonia), Chlorospingus flavopectus (Common Chlorospingus), Chlorospingus pileatus (Sooty-capped Chlorospingus), Chlorostilbon assimilis (Garden Emerald), Ciccaba virgata (Mottled Owl), Cinclus mexicanus (American Dipper), Coereba flaveola (Bananaquit), Colaptes rubiginosus (Golden-olive Woodpecker), Colibri cyanotus (Lesser Violetear), Colibri delphinae (Brown Violetear), Columbina talpacoti (Ruddy Ground Dove), Contopus cooperi (Olive-sided Flycatcher), Contopus lugubris (Dark Pewee), Contopus sordidulus (Western Wood-Pewee), Coragyps atratus (Black Vulture), Cranioleuca erythrops (Red-faced Spinetail), Cyanerpes cyaneus (Red-legged Honeycreeper), Cyanolyca argentigula (Silvery-throated Jay), Cyclarhis gujanensis (Rufous-browed Peppershrike), Dacnis venusta (Scarlet-thighed Dacnis), Diglossa plumbea (Slaty Flowerpiercer), Dives dives (Melodious Blackbird), Doryfera ludovicae (Green-fronted Lancebill), Dryobates fumigatus (Smoky-brown Woodpecker), Dryobates villosus (Hairy Woodpecker), Elaenia flavogaster (Yellow-bellied Elaenia), Elaenia frantzii (Mountain Elaenia), Elanoides forficatus (Swallow-tailed Kite), Elvira chionura (White-tailed Emerald), Empidonax atriceps (Black-capped Flycatcher), Empidonax flavescens (Yellowish Flycatcher), Empidonax flaviventris (Yellow-bellied Flycatcher), Eubucco bourcierii (Red-headed Barbet), Eugenes spectabilis (Talamanca Hummingbird), Eupherusa eximia (Stripe-tailed Hummingbird), Euphonia elegantissima (Elegant Euphonia), Euphonia hirundinacea (Yellow-throated Euphonia), Euphonia imitans (Spot-crowned Euphonia), Falco rufigularis (Bat Falcon), Fregata magnificens (Magnificent Frigatebird), Geotrygon montana (Ruddy Quail-Dove), Glyphorynchus spirurus (Wedge-billed Woodcreeper), Grallaria guatimalensis (Scaled Antpitta), Harpagus bidentatus (Double-toothed Kite), Heliodoxa jacula (Green-crowned Brilliant), Heliomaster longirostris (Long-billed Starthroat), Heliothryx barroti (Purple-crowned Fairy), Henicorhina leucophrys (Gray-breasted Wood-Wren), Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole), Ixothraupis guttata (Speckled Tanager), Klais guimeti (Violet-headed Hummingbird), Lampornis castaneoventris (White-throated Mountain-gem), Legatus leucophaius (Piratic Flycatcher), Leiothlypis peregrina (Tennessee Warbler), Lepidocolaptes affinis (Spot-crowned Woodcreeper), Leptopogon superciliaris (Slaty-capped Flycatcher), Leptotila verreauxi (White-tipped Dove), Lophotriccus pileatus (Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant), Margarornis rubiginosus (Ruddy Treerunner), Megarynchus pitangua (Boat-billed Flycatcher), Megascops clarkii (Bare-shanked Screech-Owl), Melanerpes formicivorus (Acorn Woodpecker), Melanerpes rubricapillus (Red-crowned Woodpecker), Micrastur ruficollis (Barred Forest-Falcon), Microcerculus marginatus (Scaly-breasted Wren), Milvago chimachima (Yellow-headed Caracara), Mionectes olivaceus (Olive-striped Flycatcher), Mitrephanes phaeocercus (Tufted Flycatcher), Mniotilta varia (Black-and-white Warbler), Molothrus aeneus (Bronzed Cowbird), Momotus lessonii (Lesson's Motmot), Morphnarchus princeps (Barred Hawk), Myadestes melanops (Black-faced Solitaire), Myiarchus tuberculifer (Dusky-capped Flycatcher), Myioborus miniatus (Slate-throated Redstart), Myioborus torquatus (Collared Redstart), Myiodynastes hemichrysus (Golden-bellied Flycatcher), Myiothlypis fulvicauda (Buff-rumped Warbler), Myiozetetes granadensis (Gray-capped Flycatcher), Myiozetetes similis (Social Flycatcher), Myrmotherula schisticolor (Slaty Antwren), Nothocercus bonapartei (Highland Tinamou), Nyctidromus albicollis (Common Pauraque), Odontophorus guttatus (Spotted Wood-Quail), Odontophorus leucolaemus (Black-breasted Wood-Quail), Oreothlypis gutturalis (Flame-throated Warbler), Ortalis cinereiceps (Gray-headed Chachalaca), Pachyramphus albogriseus (Black-and-white Becard), Pachyramphus versicolor (Barred Becard), Pachysylvia decurtata (Lesser Greenlet), Parkesia motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush), Patagioenas fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon), Patagioenas subvinacea (Ruddy Pigeon), Phaethornis guy (Green Hermit), Pharomachrus mocinno (Resplendent Quetzal), Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak), Pheucticus tibialis (Black-thighed Grosbeak), Pheugopedius rutilus (Rufous-breasted Wren), Philodice bryantae (Magenta-throated Woodstar), Philydor rufum (Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner), Phyllomyias burmeisteri (Rough-legged Tyrannulet), Piaya cayana (Squirrel Cuckoo), Picumnus olivaceus (Olivaceous Piculet), Pionus senilis (White-crowned Parrot), Piranga bidentata (Flame-colored Tanager), Piranga leucoptera (White-winged Tanager), Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager), Pitangus sulphuratus (Great Kiskadee), Platyrinchus mystaceus (White-throated Spadebill), Premnoplex brunnescens (Spotted Barbtail), Psarocolius wagleri (Chestnut-headed Oropendola), Pseudocolaptes lawrencii (Buffy Tuftedcheek), Psilorhinus morio (Brown Jay), Ptiliogonys caudatus (Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher), Pygochelidon cyanoleuca (Blue-and-white Swallow), Pyrilia haematotis (Brown-hooded Parrot), Pyrrhura hoffmanni (Sulphur-winged Parakeet), Rhynchocyclus brevirostris (Roadside Hawk), Rupornis magnirostris (Roadside Hawk), Saltator maximus (Buff-throated Saltator), Sayornis nigricans (Black Phoebe), Sclerurus mexicanus (Tawny-throated Leaftosser), Scytalopus argentifrons (Silvery-fronted Tapaculo), Seiurus aurocapilla (Ovenbird), Selasphorus flammula (Volcano Hummingbird), Selasphorus scintilla (Scintillant Hummingbird), Serpophaga cinerea (Torrent Tyrannulet), Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler), Setophaga pitiayumi (Tropical Parula), Setophaga virens (Black-throated Green Warbler), Sittasomus griseicapillus (Olivaceous Woodcreeper), Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker), Spinus psaltria (Lesser Goldfinch), Spinus xanthogastrus (Yellow-bellied Siskin), Spizaetus ornatus (Ornate Hawk-Eagle), Sporophila corvina (Variable Seedeater), Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Southern Rough-winged Swallow), Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Northern Rough-winged Swallow), Stilpnia larvata (Golden-hooded Tanager), Streptoprocne rutila (Chestnut-collared Swift), Streptoprocne zonaris (White-collared Swift), Syndactyla subalaris (Lineated Foliage-gleaner), Tangara dowii (Spangle-cheeked Tanager), Tangara gyrola (Bay-headed Tanager), Tangara icterocephala (Silver-throated Tanager), Thraupis episcopus (Blue-gray Tanager), Thraupis palmarum (Palm Tanager), Thripadectes rufobrunneus (Streak-breasted Treehunter), Tiaris olivaceus (Yellow-faced Grassquit), Tigrisoma fasciatum (Fasciated Tiger-Heron), Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra), Tolmomyias sulphurescens (Yellow-olive Flycatcher), Troglodytes aedon (House Wren), Troglodytes ochraceus (Ochraceous Wren), Trogon collaris (Collared Trogon), Turdus grayi (Clay-colored Thrush), Turdus plebejus (Mountain Thrush), Tyrannus melancholicus (Tropical Kingbird), Vermivora chrysoptera (Golden-winged Warbler), Vireo carmioli (Yellow-winged Vireo), Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo), Vireo leucophrys (Brown-capped Vireo), Vireo philadelphicus (Philadelphia Vireo), Xenops rutilans (Streaked Xenops), Zentrygon chiriquensis (Chiriqui Quail-Dove), Zentrygon costaricensis (Buff-fronted Quail-Dove), Zimmerius parvus (Mistletoe Tyrannulet), Zonotrichia capensis (Rufous-collared Sparrow)|
|Subspecies||Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis (Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie's))|
|Start Date / End Date||2007-02-23 / 2021-04-25|
Cloudbridge Nature Reserve is a TMCF reforestation reserve lying on the Pacific slope of Cerro Chirripó in the cantón of Pérez Zeledón. Here, we synthesize data collected at Cloudbridge between March 2016 and May 2020 from multi-year point count, walking, call-playback, and camera trap surveys along with photographs collected from February 2007 to April 2021 to present a bird species inventory of the reserve. In total, 204 bird species from 40 families, including 40 endemic species, were identified, and monthly presence summarized for each species.
|Title||Bird species inventory in secondary tropical montane cloud forest at Cloudbridge Nature Reserve, Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica.|
|Funding||Funding was provided by Cloudbridge Nature Reserve and the generous contributions of their donors, visitors, volunteers, and interns.|
|Study Area Description||Cloudbridge Nature Reserve is a 255 ha, TMCF reforestation reserve on the Pacific slope of the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica. Holdridge Life Zone classifications for the area are primarily Lower Montane Wet Forest, with some areas of Lower Montane Rain Forest. The reserve lies between 1500–2600 m a.s.l., with most biological surveys conducted between 1500–2200 m a.s.l. It is located 2 km from the village of San Gerardo de Rivas, and 18 km northeast of San Isidro del General in the cantón of Pérez Zeledón. The reserve shares its eastern border with the Parque Nacional Chirripó and its northern and part of its western border with a private nature reserve. Its other borders are shared with pastureland or private forest. Two rivers run through the reserve, Río Chirripó Pacífico and Río Urán. There are two main seasons, dry and wet, with the dry season occurring from the later part of December through the early part of April. In the peak dry season (January–March), total rainfall is about 113 mm, while in the wet season (April–December), total rainfall is about 2470 mm and rain occurs almost daily. Throughout the year, the reserve is blanketed in fog for at least part of every day. Temperatures are fairly stable, with year-round average daily temperatures fluctuating only about 3C, from 16–19C. Typical daily temperatures range from 13–27C. The reserve is composed of 227 ha of reforested pasture and farmland, and 28 ha of primary forest (montane oak forest), as well as a small area of inhabited land in the lowest corner of the reserve. The secondary forest areas can be divided into natural regeneration and planted areas. The natural regeneration areas were left to regrow without human intervention and can be further divided into areas of older natural regeneration (29–34 years) and younger natural regeneration (12–18 years). Areas that showed no or minimal natural tree regrowth were planted with native species primarily grown in an onsite nursery from seeds or saplings gathered in the primary and natural regeneration areas. The planted areas vary in age from 10–18 years. In 2018–2019, for trees greater than 10 cm in diameter, older natural regeneration areas had an average tree height of 13.4 m, younger natural regeneration areas an average of 12.8 m, planted areas an average of 11.1 m, and primary areas 14.6 m. The primary forest is largely restricted to the highest elevations in the reserve, with the older natural regeneration in a band below the primary forest and in patches in the west of the reserve. The planted and younger natural regeneration areas exist in a patchwork in the lower elevations and close to the rivers.|
The personnel involved in the project:
Bird presence was determined from several data sources, including: 1) point count monitoring, 2) walking surveys, 3) owl call-playback surveys, 4) camera trap images, and 5) photographs.
|Study Extent||For all sampling types except camera trapping, data was collected along the trails of Cloudbridge Nature Reserve. Point count and call-playback survey data was collected at sampling stations marked with a fixed and labelled marker. Walking survey and photographic data was collected anywhere along the trail system. Camera trapping data was collected at 16 locations throughout the part of the reserve south of the Río Chirripó Pacífico. The camera traps were arrayed in a grid approximately 300 m apart.|
|Quality Control||Training. All field crew for point count and walking surveys were trained on site for 2–3 weeks and were required to pass a visual bird identification test prior to beginning surveys. Each test consisted of 30 images, each shown for 15–45 seconds, of a different random selection of species that had been identified in or near the reserve or were potentially present in the area (approximately 300 species). Testing was repeated until a passing grade of 28/30 correct identifications was reached. Audio identification was not tested due to the difficulty of training accurate bird song identification skills for 300 species in short-term field crew (typically 2–3 month periods). As such, visual identification was prioritized in order to have a higher degree of confidence in the accuracy of the resulting identifications.|
Method step description:
- Data collection. Bird presence was determined from several data sources, including: 1) point count monitoring, 2) walking surveys, 3) owl call-playback surveys, 4) camera trap images, and 5) photographs. Point Count Monitoring. The bulk of the data was collected as part of a long-term monitoring study beginning on 14 March 2016 and continuing to 29 May 2020 with some gaps in data collection due to a lack of field staff, including: June–July 2016, March–June 2017, September–December 2018, and January 2019. From March 2016 to October 2017, point counts were conducted at 24 sites. In October 2017, tropical storm Nate caused severe flooding along the rivers ending reliable access to the 4 northernmost point count sites after that date. After 15 December 2017, five replacement sites were added in the southern part of the reserve and sampling continued until 29 May 2020 only at the 25 point count sites in the southern part of the reserve. Four or 5 sites were surveyed each day starting at 06:00 and finishing between 09:00 and 10:00, with all sites surveyed once a week. Daily site survey order was reversed weekly to help prevent temporal bias. Point counts lasted 20 min, conducted by one or two observers (typically two). Within a 25 m radius of a fixed marker, from the ground to the top of the canopy, all birds utilizing the habitat were identified and recorded. Visual identifications were prioritized due to training difficulties (see training section), but audio identifications were also recorded and the type of identification noted. Audio identifications were only included in this inventory when the species was also confirmed by visual identification. Birds seen soaring in the area or transiting the site were also identified but during periods of high volume were less of a priority to record. A total of 3440 point count surveys were conducted. Walking surveys. Walking surveys were conducted in conjunction with both the point count monitoring study (14 March 2016 to 29 May 2020) and a study on mixed species feeding flocks (MSF) (12 February to 19 June 2019). Walking surveys were conducted along all the trails of the reserve, including those not covered by the point count surveys, and were particularly important for surveying the northern part of the reserve where access was too unreliable for regular sampling after October 2017. During the point count monitoring study, walking surveys were conducted on alternating days for a total of five surveys every two weeks. Walking surveys occurred in between point count sites and continued after point counts had been completed. They started at 06:00 and finished at 12:00. During the MSF study, walking surveys were conducted each weekday along four routes covering most of the reserve beginning at 06:00 and lasting 3–4 h. Species were tallied for specific segments of the trails being walked. A total of 267 walking surveys were conducted for the monitoring study and 80 for the MSF study. Owl call-playback surveys. Owl species were surveyed using call-playback between March 2016 and January 2020 with data collection gaps including: March–April, June–July, and October–December in 2017; January and July in 2018; and May and September–October in 2019. Costa Rican Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium costaricanum), Unspotted Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius ridgwayi), Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba), Bare-shanked Screech-Owl (Megascops clarkii), and Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) were included in the study based on previous study results (Paradis 2007) and known Costa Rican owl ranges. Striped Owl (Asio clamator) was added in April 2016 after one was observed in the reserve. Owl surveys were conducted at the same 24 locations as the point counts, with the exception of the five sites added in 2017. The four northern sites were dropped in October 2017 due to loss of access, leaving 20 survey sites. A total of 625 surveys were conducted, with all but the first 24 surveyed for all six owl species. Call-playback surveys started at 18:30 and were completed by 00:00. Five sites were surveyed each evening, and each site was only surveyed once a month to prevent habituation to the calls. Surveys began with 3 min of silence, followed by a 2-min playback, repeated until all owl calls had been played in order of smallest owl to largest, finishing with 3 min of silence. Playbacks were composed of a mixture of alarm and song calls downloaded from Xeno-Canto (Xeno-Canto Foundation 2005–2019). Camera trap images. Bird records were supplemented by camera trap images collected in the reserve. Most camera trap data was collected between 13 May 2019 and 21 May 2020 along a grid of 16 locations spaced approximately 300 m apart throughout the reserve, some near the trail system, but most at more remote locations. As data from the camera trap study was not fully processed at the time of writing, it was only used to supplement monthly presence data for some species. Additional camera trap images from recreational cameras were available prior to May 2019, and were sometimes used as voucher photos, but not used for presence data. Photographs. Photographs taken either during or outside of surveys were obtained from staff, interns, researchers, volunteers, and visitors. In addition to serving as records of species presence, these photos were used as voucher photos for the identified species. Location and date were confirmed for each photo, ranging from 23 February 2007 to 25 April 2021. Photographs taken outside of surveys were added as unique records to the species record tables in the supplementary material.
|Purpose||This data set was developed with the intent to: 1) catalog species presence and provide monitoring data for Cloudbridge Nature Reserve, and 2) provide species presence data for an understudied region of Costa Rica to the wider scientific community.|
|Maintenance Description||Data collection for the project is on hold so the data set is currently not being updated.|