The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 298 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is ZooKeys. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
Occurrence Thaumetopoea pityocampa wilkinsoni hellenica mediterranea; Specimen
Who created the resource:
Who can answer questions about the resource:
Who filled in the metadata:
Circum Mediterranean area + Atlantic coast + central Europe + eastern Europe
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [28.304, -21.094], North East [53.331, 42.188]|
Review of the species within the Thaumetopoea pityocampa group
|Species||Thaumetopoea pityocampa (pine processionary moth)|
|Start Date / End Date||1882-01-01 / 2023-09-15|
The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller), is an iconic insect in the Mediterranean culture because of its economic and medical importance and the unique traits of the life history, namely the winter feeding and the construction of conspicuous silk tents by the larvae. Its taxonomic status, however, is unclear because the type material is not available and there is confusion among the several species and subspecies described in the last centuries. In the present study, a metadata analysis of morphological and molecular data of the species in the T. pityocampa complex were considered for species delimitation, using more than 400 individuals from more than 120 geographic locations. A reconstruction of the origin of the material used for the first formal description has allowed to identify the type locality and to design a neotype. In addition, as Denis and Schiffermüller were referring to the work of Réaumur for details about the species, the description provided by Réaumur was reviewed. The results indicate that the barcode region of mitochondrial DNA is a reliable trait to separate species in most cases whereas morphological traits are not. Hybridization among taxa makes it difficult to delimit species in contact zones when mating barriers are not present. In other cases, such as the populations of Crete Island, the lack of gene flow with the mainland population may support species delimitation even when morphological traits are not conclusive. Thus, the new species Thaumetopoea cretensis is described here based on the evidence obtained from a previous study. Species delimitation based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers allowed maintenance of three species of the complex (T. cretensis, T. pityocampa, and T. wilkinsoni) while more data are needed to determine the status of two recently described species: T. hellenica and T. mediterranea.
|Title||List of the specimens used for the morphological analysis in the paper: The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Notodontidae) species complex: a phylogeny-based revision|
|Funding||European Union’s Horizon 2020 Program for Research and Innovation under grant agreement no. 771271 ‘HOMED’ and the Bolzano/Bozen province for the grant 92/2021.|
|Study Area Description||Mediterranean Europa|
|Design Description||For male and female specimens, 44 and 31 traits, respectively, showed polymorphism and were used to explore morphological differentiation. The moth samples used in the study were collected with different methods (e.g., rearing from larvae, light/pheromone trapping) following all applicable international and local permitting requirements. There was some variation in the specimen quality and suitability for a comparative analysis of several traits. For this reason, only individuals in a reasonably good preservation condition were used. Geographic coordinates and name of the collection site were recorded for each specimen, to which a unique alphanumeric code was assigned indicating country, locality, and number of specimens.|
The personnel involved in the project:
Four species are considered as valid (in chronological order of their description, T. pityocampa, T. wilkinsoni, T. hellenica, and T. mediterranea), one as a subspecies (T. pityocampa orana), and 15 are synonyms of T. pityocampa. Types of all species, subspecies and synonyms were examined, either from museum collections or from publications, spanning over 120 locations in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Whenever possible, populations close to the type locality of taxa were used for both morphological and molecular analyses.
|Study Extent||Reconsider all available morphological and molecular traits of the species in the T. pityocampa complex, including populations for which both types of data are available, even if they are not from the same individuals. The original material on which T. pityocampa was described is not available and a thorough analysis of the old literature has allowed us to clearly identify the type locality of the species and to propose a neotype for the nominal taxon. The expectation is to delimit the species in the group and to provide traits for their identification.|
Method step description:
- For male and female specimens, 44 and 31 traits, respectively, showed polymorphism and were used to explore morphological differentiation. The moth samples used in the study were collected with different methods (e.g., rearing from larvae, light/pheromone trapping) following all applicable international and local permitting requirements. There was some variation in the specimen quality and suitability for a comparative analysis of several traits. For this reason, only individuals in a reasonably good preservation condition were used. Male genitalia preparation and female scale extraction from anal tuft followed the method described in Basso et al. (2017a). Geographic coordinates and name of the collection site were recorded for each specimen, to which a unique alphanumeric code was assigned indicating country, locality, and number of specimens.